Interesting facts about Azerbaijan | Azerbaijan.Travel (2024)

Azerbaijan is a land of many mysteries, but also of plenty of facts. See 10 interesting facts about Azerbaijan here!

The Land of Fire

Azerbaijan is often called the Land of Fire and there are several reasons why. The word ‘Azerbaijan’ literally means ‘protector of fire’; the country is abundant in oil and natural gas; it was a centre of fire worshipping; and fire has always been one of the symbols of our capital, Baku, which today is reflected in the amazing Flame Towers.

Multicultural Azerbaijan

Once situated along the Great Silk Road, many peoples have passed through these lands, helping to shape the nation’s unique traditions of tolerance and hospitality. Today, Azerbaijan is a secular country where Sunni and Shia Muslims, Christians, Jews and many other small nations have been living in peace for centuries.

Women’s suffrage

1918-1920 was fascinating time in Azerbaijan, with the first republic (the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic) introducing a number of innovations. One of them was the decision to grant women suffrage in 1918, making Azerbaijan the first country to do so in the Muslim East, and even beating many Western countries to it.

Mud volcano capital

Azerbaijan is home to an amazing collection of about 350 mud volcanoes, many of which are found in a relatively small area around Baku and nearby areas of the Caspian Sea. It’s not surprising then that Azerbaijan is sometimes called ‘the mud volcano capital of the world’ – the ground here can indeed be messy, bubbling and explosive!

Miniature books museum

The world’s first private Museum of Miniature Books is located in Baku’s Old City, a historical and architectural reserve and a World Heritage Site. This extraordinary museum is also home to the world’s largest collection of miniature books, according to the Guinness Book of Records. On display here are over 5,500 of them.

Oil achievements

Azerbaijan has a truly historic oil industry. In 1901 Baku’s oilfields were supplying over half the world’s oil, and during the Second World War accounted for approximately 75 per cent of oil produced in the Soviet Union. Baku oil therefore supplied the eastern front with the vast majority of the fuel that powered Soviet tanks and aircraft to victory.

Caspian Sea coastline

Azerbaijan has some 713 km of coastline along the Caspian Sea, the world’s largest inland body of water and a remnant of the vast Parathethys Sea that stretched from the Alps to the Aral Sea. The capital, Baku, is the largest city on the Caspian and boasts beaches, boulevards and bars replete with calming sea views and breezes.

The Heydar Aliyev Centre

The Heydar Aliyev Centre, an architectural masterpiece designed by the late Zaha Hadid won the London Design Museum’s Design of the Year award in 2014. Its visionary, undulating form has become a symbol of modern Baku. Not a single straight line was used in its design. Inside you’ll also find world-class museums and exhibitions.

The Karabakh horse

The beautiful Karabakh horse, native to Azerbaijan and a symbol of the country, is prized for its speed, stamina and beautiful chestnut colour. Traditionally bred in theKarabakh region, numbers have declined but breeding continues in western parts of the country. In 1956 a Karabakh horse was even gifted to British Queen Elizabeth II.

Carpet weaving

Azerbaijan is an ancient centre of carpet weaving home to seven regional schools, each distinguished by their own unique combination of patterns, colours and motifs. What’s more Baku boasts the state-of-the-art Carpet Museum, which is shaped like a rolled up rug and houses the world’s largest collection of Azerbaijani carpets.


Perched high in the foothills of the Greater Caucasus, the village of Khinalig is Azerbaijan’s top ethno-tourism spot and one of the highest settlements in Europe. This timeless mountain village was included on the Tentative List of UNESCO's World Heritage Committee in 2020. Its rare character can be seen clearly in the houses’ style of construction and their proximity to one another, which provides protection from the cold during frosts and blizzards. The people of Khinalig, considered one of the ancient Caucasian Albanian tribes, speak their own language that local residents call ‘Ketsh’.

The world's first oil tanker

Did you know that the world's first oil tanker went into operation in Baku in 1879? That year, the vessel named Zoroaster, ordered by the Nobel brothers for transporting crude oil extracted from the oil mines in Baku, was considered the world's first commissioned oil tanker.

Hot and cold springs

Did you know that the natural thermal springs at Ilisu, formed due to water erosion, naturally created baths inside the mountain? These thermal springs, located 5 km north-east of Ilisu village, are nestled among the mountains. Of the two springs that flow from the same rocks, one is cold and the other is hot, popularly known as ‘Boy Spring’ and ‘Girl Spring.’ These natural thermal springs are typically sought out for the treatment of various skin diseases and rheumatic conditions.

Black sandy beaches

There are beaches both to the north and south of Lankaran. The beaches' black volcanic sands are known for their therapeutic qualities and the water here is the clearest of all the Caspian Sea shores. Specifically, the black volcanic sands of this region are considered to have beneficial therapeutic effects on rheumatism, joint pains and spinal problems.

The Recollections of Alexander Dumas

The French adventurer and writer Alexander Dumas was a guest in Sheki during his historic travels to the Caucasus. In his 1856 work ‘Journey to the Caucasus,’ about his impressions of the Caucasus, he discussed the beautiful natural landscapes of Sheki, its unique tangible and intangible cultural heritage, especially its local values, and shared some interesting facts.

World Heritage

The Old City (Icherisheher), considered the historical centre of Baku, is famous for its medieval stone buildings, traditional hammams, markets and tall defensive walls. Famous landmarks, such as the Maiden Tower and the Shirvanshahs’ Palace Complex, are also located here. The Old City, surrounded by walls built in the 12th century, is part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Symbol of Victory

Khudafarin Bridge, constructed over the River Araz in 1027, held great strategic importance as a means of communication in ancient and medieval times. What distinguishes this bridge from others in the country is its valiant survival through centuries of tribulations. Also known as the ‘Bridge of Longing’, Khudafarin Bridge has witnessed wars throughout history, once again becoming a symbol of unity after being liberated from occupation in 2020.

Ice Age Relic

Do you know the a fascinating link between the ironwood tree, found in the Talish forests, and the Nobel Foundation? Alfred Nobel, who established the foundation, was also involved in manufacturing rifles. When he learned about this particular tree, known for its suitability in making durable rifle stocks, he came to Azerbaijan. It was here that the renowned Swedish inventor encountered the oil wells of Baku, erupting like fountains, which prompted him to begin an oil field venture. Therefore, the ironwood tree, survior of the last Ice Age and indigenous to the southern region of Azerbaijan, marked a pivotal moment in the life of the Nobel millionaire.

Museum of Longevity

The unique Museum of Longevity can only be visited in Azerbaijan, located in Lerik, the land of longevity. Operating since 1991, the museum displays over 2,000 exhibits, including photographs and personal items of residents who have lived for over 100 years. Foreign guests visit the museum in hope of learning the secrets of longevity.


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Interesting facts about Azerbaijan | Azerbaijan.Travel? ›

Azerbaijan, the land of fire!

This natural fire, known as Yanar Dağ, has been blazing in Azerbaijan for at least 65 years. One of Azerbaijan's most famous sites is Yanar Dağ (or “Burning Mountain“), a natural glowing fire burning on a hillside along the Caspian Sea.

What are 5 interesting facts about Azerbaijan? ›

Here are 5 things you didn't know about Azerbaijan…
  • Azerbaijan is often referred to as The Land of Fire.
  • Azerbaijan's flag represents different cultures.
  • Neft Daşları was built on stilts.
  • Baku is home to many interesting attractions.
  • Azerbaijanis love drinking tea.

What is Azerbaijan most famous for? ›

Azerbaijan, the land of fire!

This natural fire, known as Yanar Dağ, has been blazing in Azerbaijan for at least 65 years. One of Azerbaijan's most famous sites is Yanar Dağ (or “Burning Mountain“), a natural glowing fire burning on a hillside along the Caspian Sea.

Why is Azerbaijan special? ›

Azerbaijan has now become one of the most preferred foreign destinations for travellers from India. A former Soviet state, Azerbaijan is now an independent nation. It is situated on the west side of the Caspian Sea. Meanwhile, Azerbaijan shares its borders with countries like Russia, Georgia, Armenia, Iran and Turkey.

How old is Azerbaijan? ›

Azerbaijan has approximately 5 thousand years of statehood history. The first state formations or ethnopolitical associations on the territory of Azerbaijan were created since the end of the 4th, beginning of the 3rd millennium BC in the Urmia basin.

What are the seven wonders of Azerbaijan? ›

And which features have 7 natural wonders of Azerbaijan, namely: Mount Yanardag, Lake “Nohur”, Waterfall “Eddi Gozal” (Seven Beauties), Mud Volcanoes Gobustan, Agate Mountains Khizi, Rose Lake “Masazir”, Lake “Goygol” , you will learn with us.

What is Azerbaijan rich in? ›

The nation is rich in natural resources, and its economy is heavily based on oil and other energy exports. The country is considered an upper-middle income nation possessing a high level of economic development and literacy.

Who is the biggest enemy of Azerbaijan? ›

The conflict, which began with Armenia's overt territorial claims to Azerbaijan's historical lands, provocations on ethnic grounds and acts of terror in the late 1980s, resulted in military aggression against Azerbaijan.

What is the unique culture of Azerbaijan? ›

The culture of Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan mədəniyyəti) combines a diverse and heterogeneous set of elements which developed under the influence of Iranic, Turkic and Caucasian cultures. Azerbaijani culture includes its distinct cuisine, literature, folk art, and music.

What food is Azerbaijan famous for? ›

Saffron-infused plov (pilaf), the king of Azerbaijani cuisine, is always centre-stage, its courtiers a cast of grilled kebabs, skewered meats, dolma and cold salads. These are often accompanied by a glass of Azerbaijani wine or sherbet, a refreshing soft drink made with lemon, sugar, saffron and fresh fruit.

What is Azerbaijan's national animal? ›

The Karabakh horse is the national animal of Azerbaijan and the official symbol of the Agdam and Shaki districts. The horse, of great cultural importance to the people of Azerbaijan, appears in literature and on postage stamps.

What did Azerbaijan used to be called? ›

Prior to its incorporation into the Soviet Union, Azerbaijan was a part of the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic, which existed briefly in 1918 before being dissolved. Before that, the region was part of the Persian Empire, and the country was known as Persia until the early 20th century.

Why is Azerbaijan called the land of fire? ›

Azerbaijan has long been called 'the land of fire' because of the way its subterranean reserves of natural gas often ignite. While Azerbaijan's early inhabitants believed the flames to be a symbol of the light of wisdom, the fires documented around the country's oil and gas reserves have a more sinister connotation.

What language does Azerbaijan speak? ›

The primary and official language of Azerbaijan is Azerbaijani, a Turkic language closely related to and partially mutually intelligible with Modern Turkish. Together with Turkish, Turkmen and Gagauz, Azerbaijani is a member of Oghuz branch of southwestern group Turkic language family.

Who rules Azerbaijan? ›

President of Azerbaijan
President of the Republic of Azerbaijan
Incumbent Ilham Aliyev since 31 October 2003
Presidential Administration of Azerbaijan Executive branch of the Government of Azerbaijan
TypeHead of state
ResidenceZuğulba Residence in Baku (primary)
8 more rows

What animals are native to Azerbaijan? ›

The fauna of Greater Caucasus which is natural boundary in the north of Azerbaijan is very rich include mammals such as lynx, Caucasian brown bear, Asiatic wildcat, European badger, stone marten, red and roe deer, chamois, East Caucasian ibex, Caucasian squirrel, field mice, Daghestan pine vole.

What is the real name of Azerbaijan? ›

Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan; officially called the Republic of Azerbaijan) is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. It is next to Russia in the north, Georgia, Armenia in the west, Iran in the south, and Caspian Sea on the east.

What's good about Azerbaijan? ›

Azerbaijan, located at the crossroads of Europe and Asia, boasts a rich tapestry of cultural influences. From the medieval architecture of Baku's Old City to the ancient petroglyphs of Gobustan, there is no dearth of interesting and exciting things in this country.

What language did Azerbaijan speak? ›

The primary and official language of Azerbaijan is Azerbaijani, a Turkic language closely related to and partially mutually intelligible with Modern Turkish. Together with Turkish, Turkmen and Gagauz, Azerbaijani is a member of Oghuz branch of southwestern group Turkic language family.

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